The automotive industry has moved towards digitalization and connected mobility, resulting in a significant rise in the use of electronics and technology in vehicles. Vehicle-to-Everything [V2X] is one such technology which is still a nascent market that has managed to offer a wide range of everyday convenience benefits. Today, it has grown to be a critical component in providing vehicles with the ability to communicate with each other and beyond. In fact, the automotive V2X communication market is expected to reach a staggering $26.72 billion by 2025, according to a report by Grand View Research.

Image Source – V2V V2I

Interestingly, some of the key reasons why OEMs today are forced to incorporate V2X communication systems into vehicles are due to the several benefits that the systems provide in terms of advanced route guidance systems, roadway efficiency, driver convenience and traffic optimization. Allowing vehicles to ‘talk’ to each other, V2X systems are geared towards safety and are essential for hundreds of thousands of self-driving cars to operate safely.

Sasken understands the importance of disruption to address the need for autonomous driving. They have achieved a breakthrough in this area and are engaged with a Tier-1 OEM and provide services for the V2X platform to enable actionable insights in the connected automobile. Today, we have a Q&A session with Ashwin Ramachandra, VP and Head – Product Engineering Services, Sasken Technologies, on how players in the automotive industry are re-defining the electronics segment through the advent of advanced communication technologies like Vehicle-to-Everything [V2X]. So, let’s get started with the Q&A…

Can you please talk about yourself, your experience so far with Sasken Technologies ?

I have more than 20 years of experience and am currently the head of the Embedded Practice at Sasken Technologies Pvt. Limited. The Embedded Practice group consists of the following divisions:

  • Semiconductors and Platform devices
  • Industrials
  • Automotive
  • Digital [Cloud and Analytics]

When it comes to the automotive domain, the amount of software & intelligence in the car is increasing day by day and that intelligence executes on the chips that are manufactured by the semiconductor companies. In order to appreciate what Sasken is doing in the automotive segment, it is very important to deep dive into what Sasken does in the semiconductors segment. The amount of software and intelligence in the car has increased in three different areas:

  • Software on the cockpit [In-cockpit entertainment]
  • Autonomous Driving
  • Telematics

The rise has been majorly seen in the last five years. Silicon vendors are bringing out chipsets that are much more powerful so that customers can enjoy a richer audio experience and exceptional performance for these offerings. Sasken starts working with the semiconductor vendors through the Development and Testing phase. Companies like Qualcomm have chipsets like MSM820 that are meant for richer infotainment experience. On a similar line, there are silicon vendors that are working on powerful chipsets for the autonomous driving sector and in future, we would see many more companies bringing out much richer solutions for that segment.

Telematics would be typically seen in the form of communication modems. In the western world, you would have an LTE Modem connected to the car for a whole bunch of communication. These are the three major areas where semiconductor companies and Sasken are co-working together to revolutionize the overall automotive industry.

Please comment on the rise of the infotainment options in car and where do you see Android in the automotive segment ?

Many years back, we only had the option of FM Radio, which gradually moved to CD Player, and now you have a plethora of playback options on the touchscreen located on the dashboard of your car which provides a whole new world of entertainment. Previously, these systems were based on Vanilla Linux, but now Android is playing a vital role even in the automotive sector. As we all know, Android already has a huge market share in the mobile space and now its share in the auto segment is gradually increasing.

By the year 2020, we expect that Android would be present on more than forty percent of mid-range and high-end cars, which means that Android is at a huge inflection point in the auto segment. Sasken has extensive experience in Android and our team of engineers has been working on Android since the first public release of Android. This experience gives us a huge edge over our competitors since when companies need expertise on Android for the car segment; they need someone like us who have gone through the complete development cycle. The mobile expertise and experience in bringing products to the market would definitely help us in achieving an edge in the auto segment!

Based on the queries and projects that Sasken has been approached for in the auto segment, we believe that Android is very much in line to be the default operating system for cars. This would bring in a major change in the infotainment space for automobiles.

Image Source – Ashwin Ramachandra

Can you walk us through some of the technical challenges for porting Android on the automotive platform ?

The use-cases that you see on the phone are quite different from the use-cases that you see in the car. For example, you would never plug a music player like an iPod to your phone, but that is a very natural use-case when it comes to a car. You expect that the device and its type is recognized when it is plugged into the dashboard and it should also start the playback. This means that there are a lot of changes that are required to the Android stack in order to accompany such use-cases. From the UI and UX point of view, a lot more changes are required. Also, unlike India, users in the western countries use a lot more voice commands, and those commands vary when used on car vis-a-vis mobile.

You need to have a good amount of Android expertise in order to realize such use-cases and though Androidauto would evolve over a period of time. Expertise does come in very handy since time-to-market is very critical for any product. Also, the time-to-market for an automobile is typically 18~24 months, which in itself speaks for the complexity.

What are some of the cost implications for the car manufacturers in order to realize V2V/V2X/V2I use-cases ?

As far as Android for auto is concerned, it would take a fair amount of time to make its way into the entry-level automobile segment. Just take a case where you do not use Android, even in such a scenario, you need to have the silicon, an in-house R&D team, an operating system like Linux, middleware, etc. i.e. You need a significant number of engineers, hence a good amount of R&D cost is involved. Also, as mentioned earlier the number of features in the car always keeps on increasing. Hence, if you need to have your own in-house infotainment system [in absence of Android], the R&D cost itself would look similar or even lesser with a platform like Android.

Whether it is V2V, V2X, V2I, there is a lot of data that would be used to ensure that the objective is met. How secure are these protocols and how do two vehicles from different manufacturers talk to each other ensuring that there is no breach of important data ?

In case of V2V and V2I scenarios, the information is almost anonymous. For example, if a car is driving ahead of another vehicle [on a freeway], either of the vehicles can transmit information that is generic in nature and is useful for both the parties. It could transmit road-related data, climatic data, etc. There is no personal or confidential information exchanged between the two of them.

The information is completely momentary and the moment you get off the freeway, the information is gone. This data is non-threating in nature and hence, we need not worry when such data is sent over V2V/V2I channels. Also, in order to ensure that the necessary security protocols have adhered, the exchanged data goes through an approved/certified channel and it is almost impossible to fake the information. There has been a significant amount of effort that is spent to ensure that the information [irrespective of its nature] is tamper-proof and all the necessary security measures are taken.

The second part is about ‘Telematics’ i.e. the information that is shared between your car and the cloud infrastructure. This exchange has nothing to do with the co-operative network, but it is more about the route that it takes for transmission of the data. You can poll a lot of peripherals on the car to get data about the health of the car, battery, fuel, etc. This data is completely owned by the car owner but sometimes by accident, you agree to share this information in which case, this data can be used by third-party companies for targeted advertising. For example, in the current scenario, there are many cases where a particular company does not charge the consumer to use their services but instead use their data to push some relevant advertisements, coupons, etc. As a matter of fact, the millennial generation is willing to share such information in lieu of product discounts [only after providing consent].

Can you comment on some of the B2B as well as B2C use cases for the V2V/V2I/V2X technologies ?

Ride-hailing companies are already leveraging these technologies, especially the V2V and V2I to ensure that their vehicle’s health is in-tact so that the riders can enjoy a smooth ride.. They are using onboard telematics to get the necessary information. This also includes details about the driver’s characteristics, which are provided after consent by the car driver e.g. average speed at which the driver drives the car, how many times he over-speeds, angle at which he takes turns, how many times he jumps signals, etc.

This information can be used by all the necessary parties involved in the journey i.e. the car driver to improve his driving skills and average customer ratings. It can be used by the ride-hailing company to ensure that they have the best drivers on-board thereby providing a superior customer experience and it gives an additional parameter to the customer on basis on which they can rate their journey. This is currently under testing by a couple of ride-hailing companies for their premium car segment.

How wireless communications and WLAN technology have evolved over the years to be well-suited for V2X communication, due to its low latency and the ability to communicate instantly. Can you also touch upon DSRC [Dedicated Short Range Communication] ?

This is one of the points that we have discussed earlier about the co-operative network. There are a couple of emerging technologies like DSRC and Cellular V2X [CV2X] and each of them has its pros & cons. As per our understanding, the CV2X is much better-designed technology and has better technology roadmap. DSRC is loosely based on the WLAN/WiFi technology and the base standards remain the same. On the other hand, CV2X is based on the Cellular LTE technology. The US government is gearing towards usage of DSRC for V2V/V2X use cases and with wider adoption, the governments across the world would mandate what technology should be used further down the line.

As expected, both these technologies have very low latency due to nature of the use cases associated with the vehicle. This is the overall landscape of the Intelligent Transport System [ITS], both from the technical and non-technical perspective. As an organization, we are working on both these technologies and are gearing up for testing with some of our automobile clients.

Please walk us through the opportunities in the autonomous driving segment and what are some of the tech and regulatory hurdles being faced by this sector ?

The single most important requirement of this sector is that the information should be kept safe & secure. In the future, governments would also mandate a certain amount of certification and testing to ensure that there is no compromise on quality. Apart from these, standards would evolve as it autonomous driving becomes mainstream.

Technology is evolving at a very rapid pace, where do see the automobile technology 5~10 years down the line and the role that technology would play to make that dream a reality ?

As far as the automobile sector is concerned, the internal combustion engines occupy 99% of the market share, whereas electric engines have a fairly minuscule market share. However, things would take a drastic turn as we move forward. The trend is likely to change as electric engines would play a much larger role in the overall automobile ecosystem.

Sasken, as an embedded company,is looking at this area very closely but our main focus areas are in the ares of In-car infotainment, Autonomous driving and Telematics. These three pillars would change the entire automobile landscape. Some of the use cases in autonomous and assisted driving might not be directly applicable to a country like India due to the nature of traffic, road conditions, etc. but over a period of time, the entire ecosystem in India would also evolve and we would observe wider adoption.

We thank Mr. Ashwin Ramachandra for sharing his insights with our readers. If you have any questions for Ashwin about autonomous driving, opportunities in V2X/V2V/V2I, etc. please email them here or share them via a comment to this article.

On the occasion of International Mother Language Day, Microsoft has announced support for email addresses in 15 Indian languages across its email apps and services, including Office 365, Outlook 2016, Outlook.com, Exchange Online and Exchange Online Protection [EOP]. For the first time, users will be able to use local language email addresses for Outlook accounts on PCs.

Image Source – Microsoft

It will also allow users to now seamlessly send/receive mails to/from local language email addresses via Outlook client on PCs, outlook.com in addition to Outlook apps for Android and iOS. This initiative is part of the company’s ongoing efforts to support Email Address Internationalization [EAI] across its products and services eco-system and make technology accessible in local languages.

The languages being introduced are those that support Unicode, an international encoding standard for use with different languages and scriptsLocal language email addresses are inseparably linked with Internationalized Domain Names [IDNsand can currently be registered in these 15 languages according to .IN Registry, which is responsible for registering IDNs in IndiaMicrosoft’s products will also support additional Indian languages as and when their IDNs and email addresses become available in the future, making this feature forward compatible.

Speaking of the announcement Meetul Patel, COO – Microsoft India said

Ensuring that language is not a barrier to the adoption of technology is key for digital inclusion and growth. Making email addresses available in 15 languages is an exciting step to making modern communications and collaboration tools more accessible and easier to use for all – something we have been relentlessly working towards. We’re making technology use the language of people, and not requiring people to first learn the traditional language of technology.

Users can register local language email addresses in India from third party EAI address providers such as XgenPlus through a simple online process.Microsoft, a member of Universal Acceptance Steering Group [USAG] along with international partners including XgenPlus, Coremail, CNNIC and SaudiNIC, is working to support email addresses in any Unicode script through its apps and services, including RTL [right to left] languages such as Urdu and Arabic.

Microsoft and Local Language computing : Starting with Project Basha in 1998, Microsoft has been consistently working to provide local language computing in Indian languages.Microsoft supports 22 constitutionally recognized Indian languages overall, including 11 Indian language scripts for Office and Windows. Moreover, Bing allows users to browse in nine Indian languagesWith the help of its AI technologies and Deep Neural Networks, Microsoft is now making translation and speech recognition across several Indian languages, in addition to making Indic computing on the local cloud a reality by launching local cloud services from India data centers.

Fast Company announced its annual ranking of the world’s 50 Most Innovative Companies [MIC] for 2018, honoring leading enterprises and rising newcomers that exemplify the best in business and innovation. Reliance Jio, India’s premiere mobile and digital services provider earned the number 17 spot on the global list, and also ranks at number one for Most Innovative Companies in India.

Image Source – Reliance Jio

Reliance Jio has been at the forefront of technology and innovation bringing transformational changes to the Indian digital services space and propelling India into global leadership in the digital economy. With their eco-system comprising of a network, devices, applications and content, Jio has revolutionized the Indian telecom landscape, becoming the highest quality and most affordable data market in the world.

Akash Ambani, Director, Reliance Jio, stated

Since the launch of Jio, our mission has been bold yet simple: to make broadband technology affordable and accessible to every person in India. We have sought nothing less than a complete transformation of the Indian telecom sector, fueled by our commitment to bring the best products, services and value to our customers, and continuous innovation plays a major role in delivering on that promise.

Jio joins the list of other leading global companies such as Apple, Netflix, Tencent, Amazon, Spotify and many others. The 50 Most Innovative Companies were curated from Fast Company’s Top 10 lists, which recognize pioneering companies across 36 categories, from artificial intelligence to wellness. More than three dozen Fast Company editors, reporters, and contributors surveyed thousands of companies – many of which were identified by a new MIC submission process – to create these lists.

Most Innovative Companies is Fast Company’s signature franchise and one of its most highly anticipated editorial efforts of the year. It provides both a snapshot and a road map for the future of innovation across the most dynamic sectors of the economy.

Fast Company deputy editor David Lidsky, who oversaw the issue with senior editor Amy Farley, said

This year’s MIC list is an inspiring and insightful window into how many companies have embraced innovation and are working to make meaningful change.

Fast Company’s Most Innovative Companies issue [March-April 2018] is now available online here, as well as in app form via iTunes and on newsstands beginning February 27.

Koinex, India’s most advanced digital assets exchange will be listing two global crypto-assets [tokens] – OmiseGO [OMG] and Request on their exchange. In fact, Koinex will be the first exchange in India to introduce Request assets into the Indian market. OMG has been in the domestic circuit for few months but has been rather inert, and might find some buzz on the Koinex exchange.

Image Source – Koinex

Both these token are sought after assets in the global market mainly because of their efficient and ‘future ready’ technology which promises to bring a disruptive innovation in the areas of online payments, banking and e-commerce.

These tokens [crypto-assets] will be listed on the Koinex exchange, across both platforms, the portal and the app, by 2:00am Thursday [Feb 22[ this week. However consumers can start trading on them by early Friday [Feb 23], post 2:00am.

Speaking about this strategic launch, Rahul Raj, Co-Founder & CEO, Koinex said

The overall crypto-market is at an exciting juncture at this point of time and the optimistic outlook of the global digital-assets sector is slowly rubbing on the domestic market here. After careful evaluation, we have brought these tokens to the Indian market and we are very buoyant and assured that they will gain a lot of market prominence in the near future.

Adding to it, Aditya Naik, Co-Founder & CBO, Koinex said

There are many dubious tokens in the crypto-ecosystem and hence it is imperative to be mindful of the crypto-assets to invest in. We at Koinex, meticulously monitor all leading crypto-assets across the globe and have stringent quality checks related to the market cap, company legacy, relevance of the technology platform, scalability etc. to filter out the competitive tokens worthy of our customer’s investment. This quality assurance is one of our key differentiating factors amongst peers.

Rakesh Yadav, Co-Founder & CTO, Koinex added

Both Request and OmiseGO are essentially the technology of the future. They will ease a lot of the pertinent issues today with online payments, fund transfers, payment automation, e-commerce, IoT, etc. They are technologies that suit businesses and consumers both, aptly for secure and economical transactions, hence will always be valued assets in the crypto-market.

OmiseGO aims to be a decentralized exchange based on Ethereum platform, with the focus to provide better financial services for everyone, including patrons who lack traditional banking infrastructure, thus mitigating the current challenges between payment gateways, processors and financial institutions. So through the OmiseGO network, anyone will be able to conduct financial transactions such as payments, remittances, payroll deposit, B2B commerce, supply-chain finance, trading and other on-demand services, in a completely decentralized and inexpensive way.

Additionally, it will enable transitions using fiat money to decentralized currencies such as ETH, BTC, and others. As per current industry a report, the token OMG is currently the sixth highest markets cap Ethereum project in the world and the first Ethereum project to exceed USD $1 billion valuation.

Request Network, also based on Ethereum platform, aims to be a decentralized network that allows anyone to request a payment, for which the recipient can pay directly in a secure way. Essentially, here the need for a third party [Payment Gateway] in the financial transaction is eliminated, thus saving cost and being secure, quick and efficient at the same time. It also gives scope for wide range of automation possibilities. All the transactions are saved on an irreversible, authentic ledger, which is beneficial for accounting and auditing processes. The platform aims to work with every global currency and will be designed to be flexible and be compatible with IoT or any future systems.

These technology platforms being built on Request network and OmiseGO have a pragmatic approach to the future and are scalable platforms, designated to be more efficient and impactful than present day marvel platforms. This technical excellence and forward looking application makes them valuable assets for the market and will be a force to reckon on the exchange.

When it comes to borrowing money, many people prefer taking personal loans as opposed to using their credit cards as they can get more from it, the process is easier, and the rates are better.

Image Source – Personal Loan

Once you do get approved for a personal loan, the money is sent directly to your bank account. However, you have to decide whether you want to get a fixed term loan or a fixed interest rate loan.

A fixed term loan is usually less than 5 years and you can pay off the debts quickly. With a fixed interest, your monthly payment and the interest rate stay the same, however, if you are over 60 days late the interest rate on your current balance can be increased.

However, when you are getting a personal loan, you should be very careful about what you’re getting into. A lot of contracts come with certain tricks and traps that don’t even have to be buried away because the lenders will convince you that it’s in your best interest.

If you are well versed in these common traps, you can avoid them.

Insurance

Getting a life insurance can be a great means of protecting your family in case any calamity should occur. When you are considering getting a life insurance, you should look through all your options in the market and come up with the best one.

However, a lot of loan lenders, while closing the loan, might ask you to also add an insurance cover to the loan. This increases the premium of the loan. Furthermore, these insurances usually charge a premium far higher than the ones available elsewhere in the market.

To avoid this trap, you need to ask pointed questions about how the claims will be made, what would be the premium on the load, and other such questions. Only if you are satisfied with the answers, and if you’ve surveyed the market, should you purchase the loan.

Pre-Compute Interest

While Pres-Compute Interest may be hard to explain, it’s the worst deal you can get stuck with. It calculates interests in a complex manner and you end up paying a far higher interest in the initial years of the loan than you would otherwise. As such, you might pay off your loans earlier than anticipated, but you’ll do so at a higher interest rate.

In the advertisements, they may mention ‘no prepayment penalty’, however the interest will be calculated based off the ‘precompute’ method and you will end up paying more.

Origination Fee

Most personal loans charge an origination fee, which is why most people get stuck with a bad deal. You should calculate the APR of a loan, not the interest rate. And in order to avoid getting stuck with the fee, you should realize that the fee is already deducted from the loan amount.

Penalties for Prepayment

Even if penalties aren’t charged directly for prepayment, they may be charged via pre-compute interest and the origination fees. Be sure to ask if there’s a prepayment penalty, and if so, then avoid it entirely.

The share markets are volatile and risky. The huge fluctuations may be scary for you especially if you are new to stock market investing. It is natural that you would not like to lose money when prices fall. However, you must not make investment decisions based on the short-term fluctuations but instead invest for the longer term.

Image Source – Equity Market

Staying invested for a longer time is better than trying to time the market. Successful investors do not have any investment secrets to make profits. Stock investing is about comprehending the fundamentals and hard work.

Here are three reasons why you must invest in equity market.

Multiple investment options

You may invest in shares of certain companies or invest in index stocks to make profits. Alternatively, you may invest through equity mutual funds, which is an indirect way to invest in the share markets. You may also invest in the derivatives market, which includes futures and options.

Inflation-beating returns

Compared to most financial products such as government bonds, savings bank account, fixed deposits, insurance, and others, investing in the equity market offers the highest returns, especially in the long-term. If you remain invested for three to five years, there is an excellent opportunity of making inflation-beating returns. This helps you build wealth over the years.

Risk mitigation

Diversification is an important aspect of financial planning. Stock investing is risky and you may never completely mitigate the risks. However, you may invest in companies with different market capitalization or operate in different sectors to mitigate the inherent risk of stock investing.

Using market news correctly

Institutional investors may have an advantage because they receive equity market news through their huge network of professional experts. However, you also have access to this information. Furthermore, you may use several tools and techniques that are easily available online to use this information to your advantage.

An important aspect of investing in stock markets is to have a plan. You must determine the available capital that you have for such investments. Additionally, know your risk appetite and set a financial goal and investment horizon before you commence investing in shares.

It is recommended you start early so your capital has a longer time to grow. If your financial goal is in the distant future such as building a retirement corpus, stock investing may be beneficial. This is because, with a longer investment horizon, you are able to ride out the short-term volatilities to build a huge retirement corpus.

You must never assume too much risk while investing in stocks. You should have realistic goals and use the share market news wisely for maximizing your returns. To ensure you do not lose money, you must book profits once your price target is achieved. Gaining proper understanding before investing is important.

SharkID, the Smart Phonebook app, launched SharkID for Business, enabled by the corporate card. It is targeted at professionals [Employed & Self-employed], businessmen, SMEs and brands.

Founded by Ramesh Sinha, a technocrat and serial entrepreneur, SharkID is a smart phonebook app that auto updates itself and focuses on creating digital card format of contacts. When a company card is registered [verified through OTP], multiple fields are filled in – this creates the Corporate Card. The company name or brand is usually the SharkID chosen. When it gets verified, Brand Dialing can be availed. Just dialing in the brand name will connect the dialer to the nearest outlet. [e.g: dial PizzaHut to connect to the nearest PizzaHut outlet].

Every employee of the company can be given a SharkID business card and the database will remain updated in real-time, in case of attrition. For an enterprise, communicating within the company and with customers becomes much easier. Similarly, for hiring purposes, SharkID will enable a background check – one can see if the person concerned is connected to any employee within the organization.

Speaking at the launch, Ramesh Sinha, Founder – SharkID, said

SharkID for Business will fundamentally impact the way business is done – Referenced Networks[RN] will ensure there are more referrals, more trust, more conversations and more volumes. With SharkID enabling convergence and conversations, I am confident that Enterprises will embrace this idea & form their own communities on our platform.

Whether it is customer interface, insights, business patterns…the sheer amount of intelligence generated by SharkID will be of immense value to the enterprise. At SharkID, we strongly believe that individuals, Enterprises and brands have latent brand equity that has yet not been fully leveraged. Our AI & Big Data mesh will enable smarter referrals across the board to unleash the power of smart networks.

Imagine technology having a fundamental impact on core management functions like HR, Customer relations, Sales and Marketing. Think of a Hoarding with only the logo and brand name – so, because the brand name is the SharkID. Whenever a customer or a potential business lead searches for the brand, they get referred to someone in the brand’s network, and get the info about how they are linked. Think of the incredible amount of intelligence that various departments like HR, Sales, Marketing, Advertising, etc…would get through SharkID and how this could be deployed in realtime for maximum efficiency.

With over 2.5 Lakh downloads, 25 Lakh calls made, 350 Lakh mobile number network and 50 Lakh caller discoveries; the company is looking to deepen the user experience and expand the user-pool across India to 10 million by March 2019.

About Shark Identity Private Ltd

Shark Identity Private Ltd is a JV between Silvertouch Technologies and eProcurement technologies. A bootstrapped startup founded by Ramesh Sinha and Jignesh Patel, SharkID aims to replace physical visiting cards with digital cards over the next few years. For more information, please visit SharkID

Effective tax planning includes choosing the right investment option in order to maximize wealth and to generate higher returns in the long run. Individuals can, directly and indirectly, invest in the share market.

Image Source – Share Market

A direct investment means investing in stocks and equity savings scheme. Indirect investment means investing in the mutual fund, insurance, and National Pension Scheme [NPS]. There are various tax benefits available on an investment in equity. Some of the primary ones are discussed below:

Tax-free dividends

A large number of companies distribute their income amongst shareholders in the form of a dividend. The dividend is an income for the investor and the same is completely tax-free under the Income Tax Act. Any amount received in the form of the dividend is not taxable.

Long-term capital gains

When the shares are sold in the share market, investors either make a gain on the sale or suffer a loss. If the shares are sold at a price higher than the purchase price, it will be a gain and in case they are sold at a lower price, there will be a loss. Shares that are held for more than one year are known as long-term and the gain on the sale of such shares is exempt from taxation. In case of a short-term gain, it will remain taxable at 15%, regardless of the income tax slab the investor falls in. This implies that long-term investors can significantly benefit from taxation in case of capital gains.

Set off and carry forward of capital gains

The purchase and sale of shares are carried out through a demat account. The biggest tax benefit with regard to investing in equities is the option to set off capital gains. Short-Term Capital Gains [STCG] and Short-Term Capital Loss [STCL] can be adjusted against each other. Similarly, Long-Term Capital Loss [LTCL] and Long-Term Capital Gains [LTCG] can also be adjusted against each other. The capital loss can even be carried forward for up to eight financial years.

Equity-Linked Savings Scheme [ELSS]

Investment through ELSS has a number of benefits. It is liable for a deduction to the tune of INR 1.5 Lakh under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. It has a lock-in period of three years and the dividend, as well as long-term capital gains, remain tax-free. If individuals are investing for the sole purpose of tax saving, this is an ideal choice.

Rajiv Gandhi Equity Savings Scheme

The scheme can earn tax benefits amounting to INR 50,000 and has a lock-in period of three years. Further, it is available to only those investors who have an income of less than INR 12 Lakh a year. It is considered as a preferred option of investment for the purpose of a deduction under the Income Tax Act.

Every investor should choose an investment strategy based on their long-term goals. In addition to making the most out of tax benefits, wealth maximization should be the goal. With a number of investment avenues available in the share market, it is possible to reduce the tax liability and maximize wealth at the same time.