Investing in the stock markets is not only complex but risky too. There is an inherent risk that you may lose your entire principal investment in case of adverse market conditions. Most investors often think only about equities when investing in stock markets. However, you may invest in other products as well.

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One of these options includes investing in the derivatives market. Here are some easy ways to invest in these products.

What is derivative trading?

Similar to share trading, this is another type of trading product. Derivatives are specialized contracts deriving their values from underlying assets. The two important types of products available in this market include futures and options.

In a futures contract, the trader assumes a buy or sells position in an index or a share. In case the price moves in favor of the trader during the contract period, he earns a profit. In case of an adverse price movement, the trader will have to bear a loss.

F&O trading fundamentals

  • Most traded across Indian stock exchanges
  • Traders need to pay a certain margin [calculated as a certain percent of the total order value] to assume a buy or sell position
  • Daily profits and losses are calculated until the expiry date of the contract
  • The margin is also calculated on a daily basis, which means the trader has to make good any shortfall in his account to ensure his contract is not sold to recover the money
  • These contracts are valid for a certain period at the end of which these expire and in most cases, the profits and losses are shared between the traders and their brokers
  • Futures trading may be done in an index like Sensex or Nifty; in India, the Nifty futures is one of the most traded contracts

Reasons to trade in F&Os

  • Traders are able to leverage for higher stakes with the margin money when compared to the cash segment
  • Daily settlements until the expiry date
  • No mandatory need to hold a demat account
  • F&O contracts are carried to the following day until expiry; however, traders may square off their positions during the interim

Different types of F&Os

  • Index F&Os
  • F&Os on individual stocks

Common terms

  • Square off primarily means selling a position in the future
  • Cover order is an order placed to sell square off of an open position

Settlements for futures

Daily Mark to Market [MTM] settlementProfits and losses are calculated at the end of every trading day. The MTM continues until the position is sold or squared off.

Final settlement – On the expiry date, the exchange marks all open positions to the final settlement price and the profits or losses are settled in cash.

From experience, it is seen that shorter the time frame in investing, greater are the challenges. This is pertinent to intraday trading where numerous traders are looking to make a profit from intraday trading by spreading thin margins. However, they often end up losing it all.

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At the end of the day, intraday trading is not a trading terminal, instead a reflector helping you introspect your behaviour while challenging the many emotions that come during the day. Let’s look at eight intraday tips that can help to enhance your intraday trading experience.

Keep aside emotions

If you were to reason, how often do you believe a reversal in trend could take place? Lesser than 10%? If the chances are so few, why do numerous traders continue to place a bet on trend reversals? Rather than contradicting the most significant force, that is the market, it can help to trade the trend. This is because the likelihood of success is rare and in the pursuit of wanting to catch the top/bottom, traders are often left with a substantial loss of capital.

Take advantage of stock volatility to tweak your stop losses

It is a given that all company stocks have a variety of characteristics. While some may have average fluctuations of 0.5% a day, others may range to 5% average volatility each day. It could be statistically unviable to trade stocks that have 5% volatility with a 1% stop loss. Moreover, the chances of traders being provoked are incredibly This is why it is vital to filter stocks that are aligned with your budget, or you could fine-tune your budget to a variable based on stock behaviour.

Controlling greed

Most traders are overcome with greed when they witness a tiny reversal in trend in a long-term trending company stock. For example, a stock that has been on the decline for a while may have witnessed a reversal of fortune for a few days. Some traders look to make a profit from such short-term retreats, and hence, become ensnared with bad quality stocks. You may want to stay away from such trading behaviour.

Losing small

As with many traders, every investor may have missed some amount of money in trading. The key here is to ensure that you lose small but gain big. However, poor money management leads to substantial losses in just a couple of trades.

Staying patient

By analyzing and studying stocks, you can make the right moves such as avoiding small profits or trailing stop losses to ride it to the farthest level. It is crucial to make the most out of the right trade.

The concept of pyramiding

Most traders average their losing trades, regarded as pyramiding. The better option is to go with inverse pyramiding. This means you can purchase a decent percentage at entry with a determined small stop loss and cut down your expenses by booking a few upwards. Once you are satisfied with it you may want to stay sustained with the rest of the amount until you have made the most out of the trend.

Some days you may have to wait it out

It is not essential to trade every single day. Knowing when not to trade can contribute immensely to your profit and loss. If you notice a series of confused movements and stop losses, these are signs that it is a bad day to trade and you may want to stay away from intraday trading.

Defining your exits

It is crucial to establish your exits before you begin a trading session. This can help make smart decisions and prevent irrational behaviour. Any loss beyond your defined exit point would not be logical or rational.

In the world of finance, credit plays an important role. After all, your credit score is the reflection of how responsible you are towards your finances. Of course, there are numerous factors that affect your credit score adversely.  But, most people are unaware of the fact that their credit Utilization Ratio is also another factor that can affect credit score.

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Low credit Utilization ratio shows that you are responsible with credits whereas High Utilization ratio represents your irresponsible behavior. High ratio means you would have difficulty in paying the utility bills on time.

Wondering what credit Utilization Ratio means? Actually, it can be evaluated by how frequently you use a credit card. Generally, it is considered best to have low credit Utilization Ratio. And, your credit Utilization Ratio has direct impact on your credit score. That’s the reason why you should maintain low credit Utilization Ratio.

How Low Credit Utilization Ratio Helps ?

Nowadays, it is easy to calculate your credit card Utilization Ratio. Low credit Utilization Ratio is best to boost your credit. It can also help you improve your credit score in a short span of time. That is the reason why you should always maintain a low credit Utilization Ratio.

In fact, there are ways to keep your credit Utilization Ratio low. Let’s take a look at some quick ways to lower your credit Utilization rate:

  1. Make Repayments Early

To add positive information in your credit profile, you should pay all your bills on time. Clear your debts and lower your credit Utilization Ratio without a doubt.

  1. Reduce Your Spending

More you spend, the high your credit Utilization Ratio will be.  Keeping your spending in control is the only way to make your credit Utilization rate low. You should also stop using credit card if you can’t afford to make full payment early. You can also switch to debit card for regular purchase.

  1. Apply for another Credit Card

Open up another credit card and increase your available credit limit. This is a great trick to increase your credit limit and avoid hard credit inquiries which is good for your credit health.

  1. Go for High Credit Card Limit

Another amazing way to lower your credit Utilization Ratio is to increase your credit card limit. By raising your credit card limit, you can increase chances of hard credit check. This way inquiry will not dig your credit deeply as a result you will improve your credit score and credit Utilization rate also.

The Bottom Line

Credit matters a lot whether it is about borrowing record or Utilization rates. Since it could affect each and every aspect of your life, ensure maintaining a healthy credit Utilization Ratio. Once you reduce your credit Utilization Ratio, you will open up a new avenue for improving your finances.

Needless to say that low credit Utilization Ratio is good for your credit score. In short, a good credit score will help you get approved for credit cards and loans in future. That’s the reason why you are recommended to maintain low credit Utilization Ratio.

If you want to take a home loan but worried about high interest rates you are not alone? One of the reasons why so many avoid availing any kind of loan is the ‘rising’ interest rates. This is true for home loans as well. Fret not, home loan interest rates are falling, and now is possibly the best time to buy a house.

Why just buy a house, you can even use a housing loan to renovate your old house? Oh, so you thought home loans can only be taken to buy a new house? Not at all, they can be availed for a variety of things, apart from buying a new house. You can take a home loan to construct a new house in a plot of land, to buy a plot of land or property and construct a house on it, to renovate your home, carry out repair work in your house or even to add a new built-up area in an existing house. You can do all of this with a home loan.

Now comes the real deal? Do home loan interest rates worry you? You think you will have to shell out a lot over EMIs to repay your home loan? Well, the deal with EMIs is that it will also depend upon the tenure that you choose. The longer the tenure, the more interest you pay on your home loan, the lesser the tenure, the less interest you pay. Of course, the overall EMI will also depend upon the total amount of loan that you take.

Currently, banks and financial institutions such as Tata Capital offer a minimum of Rs 2 lakh as a home loan, and a maximum of Rs 10 crore, subject to 80% of the market value of the property. You will only take that much amount as a home loan that you need to make up after making the initial down payment.

Home loan interest rates in institutions such as Tata Capital are pretty competitive, and the process and documentation are quite customer-friendly. Unlike yesteryears, these days it doesn’t tear up your shoe soles to run behind banks for them to approve your home loan. All you need is to be between 24 to 65 years old and be in possession of some important documents that are needed for processing your home loan application. The documentation for home loans is slightly different between salaried employees and self-employed individuals. Similarly, the home loan interest rates are also different for different classes of borrowers. Take a look at the current home loan interest rates for different types of borrowers:

If you are a salaried or self-employed professional, the lowest home loan interest rate for you would be 9.05% for a loan amount up to Rs 30 lakh. If you have eyed at a bigger house, or if your home renovation costs call for a home loan amount higher than Rs 30 lakh, then you will be charged 9.20% interest.

If you are a self-employed non-professional, looking at a home loan of Rs 30 lakh or less, the lowest interest rate that is applicable to you is 9.20%. The rate will slightly move up to 9.45%, in case you are eying for a home loan amount higher than Rs 30 lakh.

Interestingly, financial institutions such as Tata Capital also have government schemes such as the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana 2017 under its hood. Under this scheme, lower-income borrowers are also encouraged to take home loans to fulfill their dreams of owning a house. The government has, in fact, said that borrowers whose income is less than Rs 6 lakh per year would be given home loans at an extremely concessional rate of just 4% under this scheme. Tata Capital extends these loans under their sub-brand Prapti Home Loans, which is a part of their key focus area of providing affordable housing finance. So, if you thought that your yearly CTC is not beyond Rs 6 lakh so you cannot afford to buy a house by taking a home loan, you fear just got allayed. You will not only get a loan, but you will get it at much lesser home loan interest rates compared to many others.

So are home loan interest rates still bothering you? It shouldn’t after we just cleared all your doubts and fears about the same. Just log on to the website of trusted banks and financial institutions such as Tata Capital, compare the different home loan interest rates, and go for the best choice as per your affordability. Apply for the home loan online, and you will soon have a representative knocking at your door to take matters forward.

In today’s time, job vulnerability has become quite common. With the passing time, expenses are touching the sky. And, running a home with one income source is not easy. Earning money from multiple sources is the best way to ensure financial security if you face a sudden job loss. After all, increasing your passive wealth is the only way to reduce financial vulnerability. Fortunately, earning more money is now possible in the veil of high yield savings account. Of course, it is the best way to let your idle money earn for you. With many options available in the marketplace, you might get confused how to pick the right account for you.

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No worries, you can now choose the high yield account without any hassle. Here are some factors that you should consider while choosing the right bank account for your money

  1. Choose account with no fees

Losing your return to high fees is quite painful. While looking for a great interest rate, do the research and look for a bank account that you can own for free.

  1. Check out the bank reviews

To know about the quality of customer service, technology, products and features, check what our customers have to say about the bank you use.

  1. Look at minimum maintenance balance

Penalties and charges are always a great factor that you should learn about. Look for minimum maintenance balance that you have to keep in account to avoid penalties. Nowadays, banks also features great rates and lucrative benefits like no maintenance balance.

  1. Check if initial deposit is required

When you go for high yield bank account, make sure to check if initial deposit is required. Bank account with low initial deposit is always better.

  1. Look for the interest rates

To know how much money you will earn in the name interest rates. If the fees and minimums are better, sometimes it is better to choose lower rates. Make sure you check how much you can earn if deposit money in the bank.

  1. Monthly transactions

Some banks restrict the number of transactions that you can made while other don’t. Be ready to learn how much deposits and withdrawals you can perform with a bank you choose.

  1. Confirm if you can access digital banking

Convenience and promptness are what that everyone wants. If you don’t want to get stuck with tedious formalities and queuing, you should check for online banking access. Nowadays, it is not possible to find one without digital banking.

Conclusion

When you are preparing yourself for savings account with good interest rate, you should never skip any of the factors mentioned above. No doubt that a high yield bank account can help you grow your savings easily.

If you use above-mentioned tips and keep these factors in mind, you will not face any hurdle in finding the appropriate one. Plus, you can take help from financial experts and advisors to make the process of finding the best high yield bank account easy.

What are you waiting for? Let your idle money earn for you!

In 2018 alone, investors opened more than 4 million Demat accounts across India. This mammoth shift towards the stock market from years of investing in traditional assets is indicative of a positive trend. As more and more investors are gaining access to online knowledge platforms and new forms of investments, they are increasingly becoming aware of better investment opportunities. Here, it can help to know that the Government of India has been mostly responsible for promoting the shift through its demonetization initiative introduced in 2016.

Let’s look into the reasons why the Government Of India is encouraging investors to move to dematerialized or Demat accounts.

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In 1996, the enacted Depositories Act ordained the development and regulation of authorized institutions known as depositories. These institutions would be responsible for holding dematerialized accounts of traders. At first, one could trade in the stock market by transferring physical share certificates of a company issuing the share. However, this system was rife with various hazards such as theft, fraud, certificate damage, or misplacing share certificates. With the development of online trading, all these hazards have now been put behind.

Reputed broking firms such as Kotak Securities offer Demat account opening services for all kinds of investors. Retail customers can engage broking forms to open a Demat account by registering online and filling of your application forms. To begin the process of trading in the stock market, the investor must also complete the KYC requirements.

An investor can obtain a seamless trading experience through a Demat account as all transactions are settled and enabled online. The Government of India has primarily been responsible for backing the move to Demat accounts due to the numerous benefits offered by online trading.

In June 2018, the regulations concerning dematerialized were further modified by the Securities and Exchange Board of India [SEBI]. According to the Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements [LODR], transferring, transmitting and sale request of shares can only be done if the shares are held in a dematerialized form with a depository.

Let’s consider the various benefits of opening an online Demat account.

  • Ease of useRetail investors can conveniently invest in shares to a Demat account. The user interface is easy to use, convenient and straightforward even for a beginner. One can register for a Demat account opening online through a broking services firm.
  • Instantaneous transferSince trading takes place electronically, immediate transfer is possible. A speedy transfer is convenient for buyers and sellers of shares. Through this, buyers can receive their shares instantly while sellers obtain the price immediately.
  • Real-time clearanceThrough a Demat account, all parties receive an instant and real-time settlement of trading transactions. The entire procedure is transparent, seamless and systematic with certified intermediaries that conduct all manners of trade.
  • Minimal documentation and paperworkFormerly, physical trading of shares would involve a great deal of documentation for all parties involved. To conduct any form of transfer or sale, physical share certificates and ancillary paperwork were imperative. Through a Demat account opening, investors no longer need to maintain physical papers or files to trade in shares.
  • Eliminating the ‘lot’ systemEarlier, there was a mandate to go through a ‘lot’ system to transfer shares. For instance, shares of a particular company could be sold in a lot size of 100 units only. Today, an investor can sell or purchase a single share thanks to his or her Demat account.

Conclusion

In addition to the points mentioned above, the Government of India has encouraged the switch to Demat accounts by eradicating stamp duty, boosting safety and facilitating ease of use for traders to operate from anywhere. Given the initiative of financial inclusion, investors across towns and cities can now invest in the share markets through Internet and mobile penetration.

Gone are those days when theft meant loss of physical property. The world-spread popularity of digital transactions and storage is exposing people against data theft. The theft of online data has become a very serious situation. You must be aware about the possibility of hacking traps that you might unknowingly download to your smartphones or computer.

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A cyber security insurance guards you against that by offering multiple insurance covers against different kinds of cyber security breaches.

Claim process

If you notice any sign of cyber-crime against you then you need to notify the insurance provider within a week. You also need to lodge a First Information Report [FIR] and submit a copy of it to the insurer. The insurer will then ask for other required information and consult an expert.

The cyber insurance claims are only accepted if the claim meets the insurance policy conditions.

Cyber insurance exclusions

The cyber insurance comes with multiple exclusions. Here are some that you must know about.

  • Copyright, software and patent breach
  • Damages caused by invasion and war
  • Policyholder failing at taking proper security measures
  • Physical injury of the policyholder
  • Loss of gadgets and devices
  • Data loss caused by network error

Five covers offered by the cyber insurance policy

The cyber security insurance covers are offered against various different kinds of protections. Here are the five most common ones.

  1. Online Banking

Online banking transactions have become very common all over the globe. Most urban people these days use their smartphones and computers to send money or shop online. This exposes the users to personal information theft, which ultimately leads to loss of funds.

A complete cyber insurance cover provides protection against online banking frauds. Because online banking fraud is the most common form of cyber-crime, this cover surely is the most important one for you.

  1. Phishing Mailers

From all the tools that the data thieves use, this is the most common one. Phishing is a process where the scammer tries to lead you to an online portal that looks like trustworthy websites.

This way, the targets find it safer to provide their person and banking information. They often use mailing services to send you the false links, which lead you to their authentic looking platforms. This crime is covered under the cyber insurance policies.

  1. Information Technology [IT] Theft

IT theft is a very serious issue. Viruses like ransomware or even an apparently less threatening malware can run havoc on the IT industry. From the general public to the government, nobody is safe against an attack like that.

The ‘WannaCry’ ransomware has already shown that India is among one of the most vulnerable countries against cyber-crime. Hence, an insurance cover against that is a necessity.

  1. Malware Attacks

Malware attacks are considered less harmful compared to other kinds of cyber attacks. However, it can do a lot of damage if the malware is strong enough. It can restrict you from accessing your computer and can cause loss of data.

The cyber security insurance covers the cost of restoring your data and digital programs. If a third-party files a law suit against you for loss of data, the policy provider will cover your legal charges too.

  1. Cyber Extortion

Sometimes, the cyber attackers do not breach your data directly but threaten you with the same and make monetary or other demands. This also includes data and privacy breach. A comprehensive cyber insurance will cover your expenses for a cyber-extortion counseling and also any transportation cost for travelling to court to attend cases related to cyber-extortion.

The Internet is a double-edged sword. While on one hand it has made life simpler, it also brings many risks associated. Hence, you should be secure at all times with cyber security insurance. Protect yourself as well as your valuables with general insurance from Bajaj Allianz.

Mutual funds have become the toast of the market not only for benefits of diversification, professional management and extensive choice, but also for their systematic features such as Systematic Investment Plan (SIP), Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) and Systematic Withdrawal Plan (SWP). While SIP and STP deal in investing and transferring money among various schemes, respectively, investors get the money back in SWP – they can decide the amount and frequency of cash flows subject to the underlying corpus.

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The attractiveness of SWPs has increased after the introduction of 10% Dividend Distribution Tax [DDT] on dividends from equity-oriented funds [another popular choice for regular cash flows] in the Union Budget 2018.

Illustration

Let’s start with a hypothetical case study.

Rahul holds 10,000 units in a mutual fund scheme valued at Rs 2 lakh with Net Asset Value [NAV] of Rs 20. He wants a fixed amount of Rs 8,000 every month from his investment, which he can get via SWP in the following manner

As seen in the table, Rahul has systematically withdrawn a fixed amount every month for day-to-day expenses. Apart from meeting the financial commitments, SWP can be used to book profits, especially in a bull market. One can prudently withdraw only the appreciation amount from investments based on the amount of appreciation, while the principal is intact. In this case, Rahul withdraws units only when the NAV appreciates 5%. But this will rely on the market movement. Appreciation withdrawal may not yield a favorable outcome in a bear market.

How does SWP work?

SWP allows investors to withdraw/redeem money from a mutual fund scheme at pre-determined intervals. Investors can opt for monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or yearly withdrawals to meet their cash flow requirement. Based on investors’ instructions, an equivalent amount of money is deducted by the fund house. Investors can start the SWP by giving instructions to the asset management company and providing relevant details such as folio number, scheme name, withdrawal amount, timing, and bank account details in which the amount is to be credited.

Tax on each withdrawal will be the same as in the case of full redemption of equity and debt funds. For debt funds, Short-Term Capital Gains Tax [STCG] is levied as per the tax bracket if units are held for less than 36 months, and Long-Term Capital Gains Tax [LTCG] at 20% with indexation for a holding period of more than 36 months. In case of equity funds, STCG is 15% for a holding period of less than one year, while LTCG is 10% for a holding period of more than one year.

Advantages of SWP

  1. Inculcates discipline – A disciplined approach is one of the key requirements for long-term financial success. Investors who receive lump sum money at retirement may end up spending or mismanaging their funds. SWP ensures one receives the amount in parts rather than the whole, to effectively channelize spending.
  2. Customize outflows – Through SWP, investors can customize cash flows by deciding the timing and the amount at pre-determined levels. This cash can be useful for investors who want a pre-defined regular income, like the retirees, or those keen on booking profits at regular intervals.
  3. Favorable tax treatment The dividend option lost its allure after the government introduced 10% DDT on dividends from equity-oriented funds in the Union Budget 2018. Hence, SWP emerges as a better option.

DisclaimerCRISIL Research, a division of CRISIL Limited [CRISIL] has taken due care and caution in preparing this Report based on the information obtained by CRISIL from sources which it considers reliable (Data). However, CRISIL does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy or completeness of the Data/Report and is not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from the use of Data/Report. This Report is not a recommendation to invest/ dis-invest in any entity covered in the Report and no part of this report should be construed as an investment advice. CRISIL especially states that it has no financial liability whatsoever to the subscribers/users/transmitters/distributors of this Report.

CRISIL Research operates independently of, and does not have access to information obtained by CRISIL’s Ratings Division/CRISIL Risk and Infrastructure Solutions Limited (CRIS), which may, in their regular operations, obtain information of a confidential nature. The views expressed in this Report are that of CRISIL Research and not of CRISIL’s Ratings Division/CRIS. No part of this Report may be published/reproduced in any form without CRISIL’s prior written approval.